Went through looking at a lot of safes and such a few weeks back for a new house. Difference between cabinet and safe was not clear, though it looked like cabinet was really just a locking cabinet, not deadbolts and enhanced anti-breakin stuff.
Priced that way as well. Benighted Californians are required to get one that meets some obscure state requirement.
Safes are designed to prevent theft for a stated length of time, and they are ordinarily fire-rated to withstand heat at a certain degree for a given amount of time without the contents being damaged.
Cabinets are to provide storage, prevent casual access (such as kids, not a determined thief), and are not often fire-rated. They have much thinner steel, like than in an office or garage storage cabinet. The lock is almost always a keyed lock and doesn't include all the locking bars/positions of a safe's mechanism.
There are also hybrids that are basically cabinets with some safe-like features, such thicker steel and a safe-type locking mechanism. https://amanandhisgear.com/gun-safe-vs-gun-cabinet